❶ The JPO publishes the content of an application in the Official Gazette after filing.
❷ The application submitted to the JPO is examined whether the application fulfills the substantive requirements.
❸ Where the application fails to meet the substantive requirements, a notification of reasons for refusal is sent.
❺ If the examiner judges that there are no reasons for refusal, a decision to register a trademark is made.
❽ When the applicant pays the registration fee subsequent to receipt of the decision to register, the trademark right is established. A Trademark Gazette is published containing the contents of the right of trademark registration.